Biosecurity for EMS

Protecting EMS staff and their patients

Emergency medical services (EMS) workers provide pre-hospital emergency medical care, and have high rates of healthcare associated infections (HCAI). This also presents a challenge to patients who are at risk of cross infections.

Vehicle and equipment readiness is a challenge given the amount of time it takes to thoroughly decontaminate between dispatches, creating greater pressure to increase budgets to expand resources, since cutting corners on patient and staff safety is not an option.

Chemical sprays, foams and diluted liquids for wiping cannot cover all surfaces. They also do not remain in contact for long enough for some pathogens – most disinfectants have a label contact time of 1-10 mins, far longer than a quick spray and wipe. They leave a residue, harm absorbent surfaces, and are hazardous and time-consuming to apply manually.

UVC light is effective but fails to destroy pathogens in the shadows and crevices including air circulation systems.

Conventional cleaning methods have serious effectiveness limitations

Ozone and UVC

O3D2 uses AI with both ozone and UVC light between dispatches to decontaminate all interior and equipment surfaces. The ozone also reaches inaccessible locations like the ventilation ducts and underneath seats.

Decontamination time
The cleaning cycle is entirely automated and lasts a few minutes depending on various factors. O3D2 monitors progress until everything is decontaminated and then proceeds to convert the excess ozone back into oxygen so it is safe to resume operations.

Schedule a site survey to objectively determine the level of decontamination you can expect. We have seen results up to 99.99%.

Results show that a combination of ozone and UVC are effective at combatting a wide range of pathogens, including those causing pneumonia, UTIs, bloodstream infections, and gastroenteritis such as from Clostridium difficile and Norovirus.





What is an HCAI?

“Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are complications of healthcare and linked with high morbidity and mortality. Each year, about 1 in 25 U.S. hospital patients is diagnosed with at least one infection related to hospital care alone; additional infections occur in other healthcare settings. Many HACIs are caused by the most urgent and serious antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria and may lead to sepsis or death.” (source)

How does O3D2 use AI?

O3D2 uses AI to continuously sense the environment and make instant decisions that result in cleaner outcomes, in less time, without damaging the assets it’s trying to keep clean in a careful balancing act.

How does O3D2 produce ozone?

It uses high-voltage electron ionization to split diatomic oxygen into ions, which combine with O2 to produce triatomic oxygen, O3. The process is more efficient with drier input air, and even better when coupled with an oxygen concentrator.

What kind of UV light does O3D2 produce?

It produces high-energy UVC light, in the 254-280 nm range of wavelengths which is known to disinfect

How does ozone decontaminate?

Triatomic oxygen is a highly reactive gas. Each molecule readily oxidizes various elements of organic material. For example, it cause bacterial membranes to rupture, rendering them inert. For viruses, ozone causes peroxidation of the infected cells and also damages the viral capsid.

Which patogens can O3D2 destroy?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold and spores. Each pathogen reacts differently to ozone and UVC, meaning different concentrations and contact time.

Is ozone safe?

Yes, it is FDA approved for use in decontamination with OSHA guidelines for concentrations and exposure time, and 0.1 ppm is considered safe for humans. O3D2 constantly monitors the air to assess when it is safe to re-enter.

What happens to the unspent ozone?

It naturally degrades back into regular oxygen. This can take minutes to hours depending on many factors including whether it is airborne or dissolved in water, temperature and humidity. For safety, O3D2 measures the concentration of ozone until it is safe. Catalytic destructors accelerate the process.